Product Glossary

0 LuxShot:  Technique used to shoot pictures without visible light by using a camera’s infrared sensitivity mode (infrared lighting required).

1394a:  see FireWire.

1394b:  i.e. FireWire-b (800 mb/s).

4:4:4 / 4:2:2 / 4:1:1:  Ratio used to describe the sampling frequency of a digitized signal; the ratio recounts the amount of luminance as it is applied to the individual signals. 4:4:4 means that the same sampling rate has been applied to all three signals, 4:2:2 means that the sampling rate is half that of the luminance signal, and 4:1:1 means that the sampling rate is one quarter that of the luminance signal.


Acquisition:  The method through which image data from a camera is transferred to a computer.

AE (Auto Exposure):  Camera feature that automatically calculates and adjusts exposure settings in order to match to the lighting conditions by manipulating the video signal with the iris motor control and AGC.

AF (Autofocus):  Camera feature that automatically adjusts the focus (specifically in cameras with motorized focus).

AGC (Automatic Gain Control):  Camera feature that automatically adjusts the amplification of the video signal to the lighting conditions.

Aliasing:  Distortion effect caused by a sampled signal that has frequencies higher than half of the sampling frequency, rendering the different signals indistinguishable from one another.

Analog:  Analog cameras lack a digital output and differ from digital cameras in areas such as image quality, speed, and ease of electronic integration.

Angle Brake:  Prevents unwanted movement of the borescope’s bending section.

Angle Section:  Controls the angulation, two-way or four-way, of the distal end of the borescope.

Angle of Articulation:  The angle created by the borescope tip in its original position and the articulated section at its maximum deflection.

Angle of Field:  (field of view, FOV) the greatest angle of inspection that can be viewed by a borescope; size directly affects image resolution.

Angle of View:  (direction of view, DOV) the angle between the axis of the articulating section and the axis of the angle of field.

Aperture Correction:  Camera signal processing function that compensates for a loss of picture detail by adjusting the sharpness of edges in a picture.

Area Scan:  Area scan cameras, or matrix cameras, have a sensor made up of a rectangular range of pixels that provides a view of an object that contains both length and width.

Articulation:  The ability of the tip section of a flexible borescope to be rotated, either 2-way or 4-way, by the user; controlled by a small lever on the eyepiece of the camera.

Articulation (Angulation) Barrel, Lever, or Knob:  Borescope feature used to control the angulation of the bending section by moving the barrel, lever, or knob.

Articulation Bend Radius:  The radius, in inches or millimeters, to which it is possible to bend the centerline of the articulating section of the borescope.

Aspect Ratio:  The ratio between the width and height of an image.

Asynchronous Transmission Mode:  Mode of data transmission without a specified arrival time used in IEEE 1394 cameras for reports and control functions.

ATW (Auto Tracking White Balance):  Camera feature that automatically adjusts the white balance to the temperature of the lighting conditions.

Autoiris (Auto Iris):  Lenses, either DC or video type, that automatically control the aperture of the lens.


Backlight Compensation:  Option in AE mode to compensate for the lighting of the background and the subject to enhance the clarity of the picture.

Battery Operated Borescope:  Portable borescopes that can connect to a light source or a battery pack; allows for easier, quicker inspections in a variety of fields.

Bayonet Mount:  Type of camera lens mount that allows the photographer to quickly change lenses.

Bending/Angle Section:  The section of the insertion tube whose angle is controlled by the angulation knob.

Binning:  Technique allowing charges from adjacent pixels to be combined on a CCD, resulting in an improved signal to noise ratio and faster readout speeds, but a loss in resolution.

Black Stretch / Black Compress Control:  Feature of DSP technology that adjusts the contrast of the black area of an image.

Blending Borescope:  Borescope, designed for use with specific engines, that grinds out FOD on turbine blades by inserting low-speed motorized tools through the borescope body.

Blob Analysis:  An algorithm of visual modules in computer vision that detects points in the image that are brighter or darker than the rest.

Borescope:  Optical instrument composed of either a rigid or flexible tube with an eyepiece at the end, and an objective lens linked to the tube by a relay optical system usually surrounded by optical fibers; used to inspect small, remote areas that are not directly accessible and transmit the view to the eyepiece

Brightness:  An offset setting in a camera that applies lighting preferences equally to all pixels.


Camera Link:  Serial communication protocol designed for computer vision applications and digital cameras, with the purpose of standardizing scientific and industrial video products and has a high-data transfer rate.

CCD (Charge Coupled Device):  A light-sensitive semiconductor device made of a matrix of pixels that converts photons to electrons by focusing the image onto the matrix and by applying electric charges to the pixels.

CCD IRIS:  Function of a CCD camera that automatically adjusts the electronic shutter timing to retain the same video output level and compensate for lighting changes.

CCU (Camera Control Unit):  Means of controlling a remote camera by powering the camera, handling signals sent to and from the camera, and controlling various camera functions remotely.

Channel Inlet:  Allows channel accessories to pass through the insertion tube when the borescope is equipped with a working channel.

Chrominance (C):  Composite signal used in video systems to covey the color information of the picture (see Luminance).

CHU (Camera Head Unit):  Small unit in a remote camera system that includes the sensor, optical interface, the cable to the CCU, and electronic circuitry.

CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor):  Image sensor technology that constructs integrated circuits; CMOS sensors are superior to CCDs in cost, speed, multiple slope response, high noise immunity, and low static power consumption.

C-Mount:  Type of camera lens mount originally made for television and film typically 1/2" or 3/4" in diameter.

Composite Sync:  Combines the HD and VD in one signal on one pair of wires to transmit component video.

Contrast:  The differences in photographic density in a radiograph; contrast between subject and film forms an image, and the features become more visible as contrast increases.


Dark Current:  A thermally generated small electric current that flows through a CCD’s image sensor and creates problematic noise in low lighting conditions.

DCAM:  “1394-based Digital Camera Specification" is a software interface standard for communicating with cameras over FireWire and defines the behavior of cameras that output uncompressed image data without audio.

Decibel or dB:  A logarithmic unit of measure that indicates the ratio of a physical quantity relative to a specified reference level; used to describe signal-to-noise or dynamic range.

Depth of Field (DOF):  The maximum distance between the closest and furthest points of objects in the focus of a particular lens.

Depth of Focus:  The distance over which the image plane can be displaced while a single object remains in focus.

Detail Detectability:  The greatest amount of detail visible in an image.

Digital Imaging:  The creation of digital images by capturing a video image in a digital data format for computer analysis.

Distal Tip:  The steel end of the insertion tube where the image bundle and light guides end.

Diopter Adjustment Ring:  Focuses the eyepiece for the user.

Diopter Correction:  Adjustment of the eyepiece of an optical instrument that allows the user to adjust the viewfinder to their particular vision condition.

Donpisha:  (Japanese for "immediate”) shuttering technology in a CCD that allows for asynchronous shooting of fast-moving subjects without a time delay.

DSP (Digital Signal Processing):  Represents discrete time signals with a sequence of numbers or symbols and then digitally processes, measures, filters, and compresses these continuous real-world analog signals before they can be displayed or transmitted.

Dyna Latitude Process:  A feature of DSP technology that manipulates pixel contrast to make use of the video signal standard’s restricted dynamic range.

Dynamic Contrast Control Plus (DCC+):  A function of DSP technology that virtually eliminates hue factor distortion by working video signal data at three levels—hue, brightness, and saturation—to reproduce images with appropriate highlight contrast.

Dynamic Range:  The ratio between the maximum and minimum measurable light intensities, measured in EV differences, or stops, between the brightest and darkest parts of the image that show detail.


E-Donpisha:  Enhanced asynchronous shutter available with external and internal synchronization modes that allows shutter speed to be selected by a switch or menu setting.

E-Donpisha - II:  Asynchronous shutter mode in which shutter speed and accumulation timing is controlled by the external trigger signal.

Electronic shutter:  Operating mode in a CCD camera that reduces blur when shooting fast-moving subjects and reduces sensitivity in bright conditions by reducing the integration time without the use of a mechanical device.

Exposure Time:  The amount of time that a sensor is exposed to light, set by adjusting the shutter angle.

Exwave HAD Technology:  Technology that more than doubles camera sensitivity, while reducing smear immensely; designed with a nearly gapless OCL located over each pixel on the CCD.

Eyepiece:  The ocular lens system on the end of the borescope that brings the image of the object or area under inspection to the user.


F Stop, F Number:  Dimensionless number that is a calibrated and quantitative measure of lens aperture speed; expresses the ratio between the diameter of the entrance pupil and the focal length of the lens, registering the amount of light falling on the image.

Fast Lens:  Lens with a low F-stop that allows a lot of light onto the image.

Fiber Optics:  Flexible, transparent, pure glass fiber arrays that have the capability of transmitting light or an image through the fiber bundle; immune to electromagnetic interference.

Field:  Half of a television picture that consists of only the odd or even lines that recombine on screen into frames as a result of picture tube and human visual memory.

Field / frame integration:  Two different CCD pixel readout techniques designed for interlaced output that refer to the total integration time, field duration, or frame duration.

Field of View (FOV):  The viewable portion of the object through the camera lens.

FireWire:  A low cost, simple, serial bus computer interface standard for high-speed communication and isochronous real-time data transfer; various versions are IEEE 1394, IEEE-1394a, IEEE-1394b, i.LINK, and Lynx.

Filter Driver:  Driver in Gigabit Ethernet cameras that significantly reduces the burden that large volumes of data inflict on the CPU by filtering out low level image data.

Flexible Borescope:  A specialized optical instrument with an eyepiece at one end and a lens at the other, and the ability to bend around tight corners; used for inspection and examining areas with limited access.

Focal length:  Measure of how strongly the camera focuses or defocuses light by adjusting the angle of view and magnification of a lens.

Focusing:  Adjusting the eyepiece of the borescope to the desired visibility and focal point.

FOD (Foreign Object Damage):  Damage caused by foreign object debris (also FOD), i.e. potentially harmful substances, debris, or articles.

Frame:  A complete television picture that consists of two sequential interlaced scanned fields.

Frame Rate:  Measure of camera speed in frames per second.

Frame Grabber:  Electronic device such as a PCI card that connects analog cameras to a computer system and captures individual digital still frames from the analog video signal.


Gauging:  Examination and measurement of the dimensions of an object using a machine vision camera or an imaging system.

Gain:  Measure of the ability of a circuit to increase the electronic amplification factor of a signal from the input to the output.

Gamma:  Correction law in the camera output signal used to code and decode luminance and correct the linearity of the CRT in video monitors.

Genlock:  Common circuitry where the video output of one signal is used to synchronize other television picture sources together. V-lock is used when switching from one B/W color source to another; HV-lock is used for syncing B/W cameras, and requires a HD + VD input, composite sync input, or composite VS input; full color genlock is used to mix pictures without degrading the color.

Gigabit Ethernet:  An industry standard interface used for high-speed computer networks; adapted for high performance CCD cameras in industrial applications.

GigE Vision:  Interface standard for high-performance machine vision cameras that involves Gigabit Ethernet, communications protocols, and standardized camera control registers.

Global Shutter:  Method of image acquisition in which the entire frame is exposed for the same time window, producing distortions in fast-moving subjects.

Gray Scale:  A monochrome image in which the value of each pixel carries only intensity information (black at the weakest intensity and white at the strongest).

Guide Tubes:  Stainless steel or flexible tubing with distal articulation that allow for accurate and easy borescope use.


HAC:  Host Adapter Cards connect a computer host system to other networks and storage devices.

HAD (Hole Accumulation Diode):  CCD technology that reduces electronic noise and the dark current and increases pixel count and electronic shuttering capability.

Hawkeye Classic:  Hawkeye rigid borescope with refined Classic technology, a new multi-coated objective lens, and a durable easy-to-clean mirror. This borescope produces bright, clear images with true color. Available in Classic Slim or Classic Hardy.

Hawkeye Pro:  The Hawkeye Pro Precision Borescopes produce bright, clear, detailed, high-contrast images and are engineered especially for plug and play versatility with video and digital photography. Available in Pro MicroSlim, Pro SuperSlim, Pro Slim, or Pro Hardy.

Hawkeye Blue:  The Hawkeye Blue Rigid Borescopes contain high quality, German-made optics with built-in prism technology. They deliver images of excellent quality, meeting the needs of specialized visual inspection that require advanced capabilities and performance. Available in Blue or Blue Swing Prism.

Horizontal Drive:  Signal that synchronizes the camera’s line scan rate to an external source.

High Rate Scanning:  Horizontal lines are symmetrical about the optical sensor center and the camera is able to output the lines at a higher rate at slightly less than the camera’s maximum number.

Histogram:  A graphical representation of the pixel luminance values in an image with the left edge black representing zero and the right edge white for 256/4096.

Horizontal Resolution:  Number of equally spaced vertical transitions in white-to-black or black-to-white that the camera is able to produce, defining the capability of the system to resolve vertical lines. It is limited by the number of pixels in one line, by the type of color filter used, and depends on the camera display capabilities, bandwidth, high-frequency amplitude, and the phase response of the transition medium. When divided by the aspect ratio, typically 4:3, it makes a comparison between horizontal and vertical resolution easier.

Hyper HAD:  Type of HAD sensor that uses OCL technology and microscopic lenses mounted over each sensing pixel to greatly reduce smear and practically double sensitivity.


ICR (IR Cut Removable):  Camera function that increases camera sensitivity to IR illumination for use in low light environments.

IEEE 1394:  Serial bus interface standard (see FireWire).

IIDC:  The Instrumentation & Industrial Digital Camera is a data format standard for communicating with live video over FireWire.

Image Analysis:  The machine vision software process of generating a set of descriptors or features with the use of pattern recognition, digital geometry, and signal processing to make a decision about objects in an image.

Image Bundle (Coherent Fiber Bundles):  Individual fibers bound only at the ends and separated in between; they transmit images to the eyepiece and are designed to improve and enhance the image.

Image resolution:  Describes the detail of an image, determined by the size of the focal spot and the detector resolution.

Integration:  The act of assembling, installing, and configuring the components of a machine vision system.

Integration Time:  The amount of time that the camera’s image sensor is exposed to light while taking a picture.

Interlaced Scan:  Common scanning method used to display a video image on a screen. Using two fields to create a frame, the even lines of pixels are scanned in one field and the odd lines are contained in the other. This method reduces flicker and doubles the screen’s refresh rate. For more information please visit Wikipedia Interlaced Video for a detailed explaination.

Interlace and Progressive Scan Comparison

Demonstration of interlace and so-called "interline twitter", based on part of an RCA Indian Head Test Card ca. 1940. From left to right: progressive, interlace animation, and reconstructed using "bob" (interpolation per field) algorithm. Top row: original full-resolution image; bottom row: vertically blurred using [1 4 6 4 1]/16 kernel. Progressive images are darkened somewhat to match the effective brightness of the interlaced images. - Derivative work: Damian Yerrick  See Wikimedia Commons Page Here


Interline Transfer:  A type of CCD architecture where each pixel element is composed of a hybrid structure of an associated parallel readout CCD storage region and a separate photodiode, and there is an opaque transfer channel between the pixel columns; reduces dynamic range, sensitivity, and spatial resolution because of the metallic mask structure constructed over the light shielded parallel readout CCD elements.

Interval AF:  Camera feature in which the Auto Focus mode is periodically switched on and off between Auto and Fixed focus, with the ability to separately adjust the duration of the interval.

Insertion Tube:  The long, flexible portion, or working tube, of a borescope that gives the user the ability to inspect inaccessible areas or objects.

IR Lens:  A specially designed lens that corrects the chromatic aberrations in infrared wavelengths to take clear photos in the proper lighting conditions (both visible and infrared illumination should be received by the camera).

Iris:  A manual or automatic size-adjustable aperture in a camera lens that compensates for changing lighting conditions by controlling the amount of light that reaches the imager.

Isochronous Transmission Mode:  Data transmission mode in FireWire technology, also known as start-stop mode or character mode, that guarantees regular transmission timing and bandwidth.

ISO 9000, 9002:  Internationally recognized standards that relate to quality management systems and are designed to help a company’s manufacturing record keeping and ensure they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders.

IT (Interline Transfer):  CCD architecture in which the charges on exposed pixels are transferred to light-shielded vertical readout zones embedded in the sensitive area; effectively eliminates smear and reduces shutter time, but drops the fill factor and effective quantum efficiency by half the value.


Jumbo Frames:  Gigabit Ethernet frames with more than 1500 byes of payload that minimize the amount of overhead when the host computer receives data.


Light Guides (Incoherent Fiber Bundles):  Transmit light to illuminate the area under inspection and are more flexible and heat resistant than coherent fiber bundles.

Light Guide Cable:  Long cable that houses the light guide fibers.

Line Scan (also Linear Array or Rolling Shutter):  Cameras with a line scan image sensor chip have a single line of pixel sensors (as opposed to a matrix) and capture an image by scanning an object as it moves past the lens—typically used to shoot a constant stream of moving material. This method is applied by rolling the shutter across the exposable image area, thus increasing sensitivity by allowing the image sensor to continue to gather photons during acquisition.

Long-term Integration:  Camera feature that provides very high sensitivity by having the CCD expose the image sensor over a long period of time that is defined by the photographer.

Luminance (Y):  Composite signal used in video systems to covey the brightness in an image (typically paired with chroma).

Lux (lx):  The SI measurement of light intensity measuring luminous power per area.


Machine Vision:  Branch of engineering that uses computer vision—the application of computers and cameras to cause an automated action based on images taken by the cameras—in the context of manufacturing applications.

Manual Focus:  A camera with a manual focus lens requires the photographer to adjust the focus by hand (as opposed to an auto-focus lens).

Manual Iris:  Simplest type of iris control lens that requires manual adjustment to set the iris opening, typically used for fixed lighting applications.

MD (Motion Detector):  Camera feature, ideal for security use, where a reference field is compared with current fields and should a difference be detected, the camera outputs a pulse.

Megapixel:  One million pixels; used to denote the number of pixels in an image, the number of image sensor elements, and the number of display elements.

MicroFlex Semi-Rigid:  Small diameter Hawkeye borescopes that allow some flexibility to prevent breakage; made with a 10,000-fiber image bundle for good image quality.

Microlens:  Technology used in some interline transfer CCDs to couple light to optical fibers and to increase the light collection efficiency of the CCD array by channeling light that would otherwise have fallen on the non-sensitive areas directly into the sensitive area of the CCD.

Milliscope:  Detachable borescope system from Zibra that delivers superior optical performance.

Milliscope II:  Versatile, detachable, small diameter borescope system from Zibra with easily interchangeable probes to suit the application needs of the user.

Minimum Illumination:  Specification in video cameras that denotes the lowest light level in lux needed to procure a 50% or 100% video output level, when the lens iris is fully opened and the camera is at maximum gain.

MOD (Minimum Object Distance):  A lens parameter that specifies the closest distance from an object that a camera lens can focus on it.

Morphology:  Theory and technique that studies the mathematics of shape analysis, processes geometrical structures, and is the foundation for morphological image processing, which uses a set of operators to transform images according to shape, size, connectivity, convexity, and geodesic distance.

Motorized Lens:  An electronically operated lens controlled by a computer.

Multiscope:  Convenient, detachable, large diameter borescope platform from Zibra that features a universal video coupler and many choices in scope diameter and length.

Multivision:  Compact, handheld CCD video camera system from Zibra with an integrated light cable, the high resolution 525 L video camera, and a borescope attachment.

MTF (Modulation Transfer Function):  Measure of resolution capability of the system; can be represented by a graph of special frequency against light amplitude.


ND Filter (Neutral Density Filter):  A colorless or grey filter added in front of a lens to equally reduce or modify the intensity of the light coming into the camera lens without influencing the color rendition.

Network Adaptor:  Computer hardware component, like an Ethernet interface card or port, used to connect a computer to a network.

NF Mount:  Camera mount that has 12 mm clearance between the rear mounting surface of the lens and the CCD.

NTSC (National Television System Committee):  Analog television system of a color video standard used mainly in Japan and the United States.


Objective Distance:  The distance from the subject to the objective lens.

Objective Lens:  Optical element, either single lenses or mirrors, that gathers light from the object under inspection and focuses the light to produce an image in the borescope.

OCR:  Optical Character Recognition uses machine vision to read and analyze scanned images of handwritten, typewritten, or printed text into machine-encoded text.

OHCI (Open Host Controller Interface):  FireWire driver that comes with all modern operating systems to ensure that works properly with any compliant hardware.

Offset:  Mean value of the waveform; controls brightness value.

One-push AF:  Auto Focus mode that can be automatically readjusted by the photographer when he or she wants to fix the focus on a particular subject.


PAL (Phase Alternating Line):  Analog color television encoding system that is a standard in broadcast television systems.

Partial Enhance:  An advanced function of the Digital Signal Processing (DSP) technology that allows a particular color to be selected and its hue, saturation and detail altered. This function gives the subject a pleasing complexion with a softer image while maintaining the sharpness of other areas, and vice versa. The designated active area of partial enhance can be set with the digital circuits by simply adjusting the Area Detect Cursor.  Enhances or softens a specific color by altering its hue, saturation and detail.

Pixel:  Picture element; a minute area of illumination on a display screen, one of many from which an image is composed.

PowerHAD:  CCD technology improvement from the Hyper HAD, in which the microscopic lenses focus more light onto the light sensors, more effectively reducing smear and greatly increasing sensitivity.

Progressive Scan:  Method for displaying, storing or transmitting moving images in which all the lines of each frame, both even and odd fields, are produced at the same time. For more information please visit Wikipedia Progressive Scan Video for a detailed explaination.

Progressive Scan and Interlace Comparison

Demonstration of interlace and so-called "interline twitter", based on part of an RCA Indian Head Test Card ca. 1940. From left to right: progressive, interlace animation, and reconstructed using "bob" (interpolation per field) algorithm. Top row: original full-resolution image; bottom row: vertically blurred using [1 4 6 4 1]/16 kernel. Progressive images are darkened somewhat to match the effective brightness of the interlaced images.Derivative work: Damian Yerrick  See Wikimedia Commons Page Here



Readout:  The rate at which data from the CCD/CMOS sensor is transferred to the host computer.

Region of Interest (ROI):  Camera function in which a selected subset of the available pixels is read out from the camera.

Relay Lenses:  Group of lenses in the working tube of the borescope that invert the image and transmit it from the objective lens to the eyepiece.

Restart / Reset:  Function in which the CCD accumulation time is extended, producing a highly sensitive image.

RGB (Red, Green, Blue):  The primary colors of light that, to produce high-quality pictures in a video system, are kept separate from each other and are transferred from the source to the display device over separate wires.

Rigid Borescope:  An optical instrument that allows inspection of cavities; a rigid tube composed of a system of lenses, mirrors, prisms, and a means of lighting; provides superior images at a lower cost than flexible borescopes, but have much more limited access.

RJ45:  Registered jack that refers to GigE computer connectors.

Rolling Shutter:  See Line Scan.

RS-232C:  Serial binary single-ended data transmission standard for computers that controls the signals that connect DTE and DCE equipment; can also be used to control camera functions.


Scalable Scanning:  Outputting a picture that corresponds to a sensor’s user-defined sub-zones.

Screen Mode:  Camera function that adjusts the transparency of the screen in the area around the picture, allowing the photographer to view the surrounding scene.

SDK (Software Development Kit):  Set of development tools that allows for the creation of applications for a certain software, hardware, computer operating systems, and other platforms.

S-Donpisha:  Asynchronous shutter mode used with external HD/VD sync, in which shutter speed is determined by the length of time between the trigger pulse and the VD input.

Sheathing:  A plastic, stainless steel mesh, or metal casing that protects the working tube of a borescope.

Side View Fiberscope:  Scope with a prism or mirror that allows the user look at a right angle.

S-Video (Also called Y/C):  Analog video transmission scheme that suppresses cross color effects and allows higher resolution because it encodes video information on luminance and chrominance channels.

Sensitivity:  Lens iris aperture needed to produce a video output signal at a specific light input.

Sensor Size:  The active area of a camera’s sensor that determines the proper lens magnification required to obtain the necessary field of view.

Slow Shutter:  Shutter mode with an exposure time that is longer than 1/50s (PAL) or 1/60s (NTSC) that increases camera sensitivity when shooting moving objects.

Smart Camera:  Camera with image processing software capable of doing some simple machine vision tasks.

Smear:  Undesirable result that appears in photographs as a vertical streak above and below a bright object in the scene, caused by light getting into the vertical transfer registers.

S/N (Signal to Noise Ratio):  Measure, usually expressed in decibels, used to quantify how much a signal has been corrupted by noise.

Snapshot Shutter:  See Rolling Shutter, Global Shutter.

Spatial Resolution:  A measure the ability of the camera’s optical system to distinguish small details in an object.

Square Pixel:  A CCD in which all of the individual pixels are formed into equal squares; used for high definition video projects and multimedia video.

Strobe Synchronization:  Camera function designed with a uniform flash pattern to capture fast moving objects in full frame images by flashing a strobe in dark lighting conditions.

Subcarrier:  The 4.43 MHz (PAL) or 3.59 MHz (NTSC) separate analog or digital signal that carries color, voice, or data information.

SXGA:  Super Extended Graphics Array, a specification displaying 1280 x 1024 resolution or 1.3 million pixels (approximate).

System Integrator:  A company or person that specializes in unifying component subsystems and ensuring that they function together; provides machine vision systems aimed at customer application and installation.

Sync (Synchronization):  An external signal produced by a camera to connect to outside equipment.


Tip Length:  Distance from the center objective window to the distal tip of the borescope.

Trigger:  An input to an industrial digital camera than initiates the image capture of single or multiple frames of a digital camera by analyzing the signals of its sensor.


U and V:  The coded names in the NTSC and PAL color systems given to the two video color difference signals (R-Y and B-Y) that represent hue and saturation or chrominance.

Ultra Mount:  Camera mount that has 6.7 mm clearance between the rear mounting surface of the lens and the CCD.


VBS (Video + Burst + Sync):  Composite video signal that contains all required video information, including colors in a single line-level signal.

VD (Vertical Drive):  Signal that synchronizes the camera’s field rate to an external source.

Vertical Resolution:  Number of equally spaced horizontal transitions in white-to-black or black-to-white transitions that the camera is able to produce, detailing the amount of vertical details that can be perceived.

Videoscope:  Advanced flexible borescope that transmits video images from a very small CCD chip in the distal tip and focusable lens assembly of the scope back to the display.

Video-type Auto Iris:  Automatic iris that requires a video signal to control the iris opening.

VISCA (Video System Control Architecture):  RS-232C serial control protocol that utilizes a serial repeater network configuration to interface up to seven peripherals of video equipment on one computer link.

Visual Acuity:  The measure of a person’s clarity of vision and their ability to perceive fine detail of an object.


White Balance (WB):  The process of adjusting color difference signal values and removing unrealistic color casts, so that a white object in person is displayed as white in the photo.

Working Channel Borescope “C” Version:  Flexible borescope designed for the detection, retrieval, and prevention of FOD in engines by using compatible retrieval tools for physical tasks at the area of inspection.

Working Channel Tools:  Tools, such as a cleaning brush, scraper, snare, and retrieval forceps, that pass through the borescope to the distal tip and perform physical tasks to remove FOD at the area of inspection.

Working Diameter:  The diameter of the working section of the borescope.

Working Distance (WD):  The distance from the front of the camera lens to subject of the photo.

Working Length:  The distance between the body portion of the borescope and the optical axis of the tip; does not include the length of the tip.


Y/C (also called S-Video):  Analog video transmission scheme that suppresses cross color effects and allows higher resolution because it encodes video information on luminance and chrominance channels.

Y/R-Y/B-Y:  Luminance/red minus luminance/blue minus luminance; signal typically used for high-end visual applications that carries the color information over longer cable lengths without significant resolution loss; allows different spatial resolutions for luminance and color.


Zibrascope:  Versatile and durable standard rigid borescope system from Zibra that delivers superior quality optics.

Zoom Triggered AF:  Auto focus mode in which fixed focus is temporarily switched on each time the zoom ratio of the lens is changed.